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Jupiter

Jupiter.

Jupiter, a planet in our Solar System, currently has 79 confirmed moons. 46 of these are less than 3 km wide and probably used to be asteroids before Jupiter's gravity pulled them in. This gives it the largest retinue of moons with "reasonably secure" orbits of any planet in the Solar System. The most massive of them, the four Galilean moons, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, were discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and Simon Marius. They were the first objects found not to orbit a body that was neither Earth nor the Sun. The Galilean moons are by far the largest and most massive objects in orbit around Jupiter, with the remaining 75 moons and the rings together comprising just 0.003% of the total orbiting mass.

From the end of the 19th century, dozens of much smaller Jovian moons have been discovered and have received the names of lovers, conquests, or daughters of the Roman god Jupiter, or his Greek equivalent, Zeus.

List of Moons in JupiterEdit

Below is the list of currently discovered moons on Jupiter, in order of orbital period.

Order Label Name Image Diameter Mass (x 10Pg) Semi-major axis (km) Orbital period (days) Inclination (°) Eccentricity Discovery date Discoverer Group
1 XVI Metis Metis 60 x 40 x 34 ≈ 3.6 127,690 +7h 4m 29s 0.06 0.0002 1979 Synott (Voyager 1) Inner
2 XV Adrastea Adrastea 20 x 16 x 14 ≈ 0.2 128,690 +7h 9m 30s 0.03 0.0015 1979 Jewitt (Voyager 2) Inner
3 V Amalthea Amalthea 250 x 146 x 128 (167 ± 4.0) 208 181,366 +11h 57m 23s 0.374 0.0032 1892 Barnard Inner
4 XIV Thebe Thebe 116 x 98 x 84 ≈ 43 221,889 +16h 11m 17s 1.076 0.0175 1979 Synott (Voyager 1) Inner
5 I Io Io 3,660.0 x 3,637.4 x 3,630.6 8,931,900 421,700 +1.7691 0.050 0.0041 1610 Galilei Galileian
6 II Europa Europa 3,121.6 4,800,000 671,034 +3.5512 0.471 0.0094 1610 Galilei Galileian
7 III Ganymede Ganymede 5,262.4 14,819,000 1,070,412 +7.1546 0.204 0.0011 1610 Galilei Galileian
8 IV Callisto Callisto 4,820.6 10,759,000 1,882,709 +16.689 0.205 0.0074 1610 Galilei Galileian
9 XVIII Themisto 8 0.069 7,393,216 +129.87 45.762 0.2115 1975/2000 Kowal & Roemer / Sheppard et al Themisto
10 XIII Leda 16 0.6 11,187,781 +240.82 27.562 0.1673 1974 Kowal Himalia
11 VI Himalia 170 670 11,451,971 +250.23 30.486 0.1513 1904 Perrine Himalia
12 LXXI S/2018 J 1 2 0.015 11,453,004 +250.40 30.606 0.0944 2018 Sheppard et al. Himalia
13 LXV S/2017 J 4 2 0.0015 11,494,801 +251.77 28.155 0.1800 2017 Sheppard et al. Himalia
14 X Lysithea 36 6.3 11,740,560 +259.89 27.006 0.1322 1938 Nicholson Himalia
15 VII Elara 86 87 11,778,034 +257.62 29.691 0.1948 1905 Perrine Himalia
16 LIII Dia 4 0.0090 12,570,424 +287.93 27.584 0.2058 2001 Sheppard et al. Himalia
17 XLVI Carpo 3 0.0045 17,144,873 +458.62 56.001 0.2735 2003 Sheppard et al. Carpo
18 N/A S/2003 J 12 1 0.00015 17,739,539 -482.69 142.680 0.4449 2003 Sheppard et al. Unknown
19 LXII S/2016 J 2 1 18,928,095 +532.00 34.014 0.2219 2016 Sheppard et al. Jupiter LXII
20 XXXIV Euporie 2 0.0015 19,088,434 -538.78 144.694 0.0960 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
21 LX S/2003 J 3 2 0.0015 19,621,780 -561.52 146.363 0.2507 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
22 LV S/2003 J 18 2 0.0015 20,219,648 -587.38 146.376 0.1048 2003 Gladman et al. Pasiphae
23 LII S/2010 J 2 1 Unknown 20,307,150 -588.36 150.4 0.307 2010 Veillet Ananke
24 XLII Thelxinoe 2 0.0015 20,453,753 -597.61 151.292 0.2684 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
25 XXXIII Euanthe 3 0.0045 20,464,854 -598.09 143.409 0.2000 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
26 XLV Helike 4 0.0090 20,540,266 -601.40 154.586 0.1374 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
27 XXXV Orthosie 2 0.0015 20,567,971 -602.62 142.366 0.2433 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
28 LXVIII S/2017 J 7 2 0.0015 20,571,458 -602.77 143.438 0.2147 2017 Sheppard et al. Ananke
29 LIV S/2016 J 1 3 0.0015 20,595,9483 -603.83 139.839 0.1377 2016 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
30 LXIV S/2017 J 3 2 0.0015 20,639,315 -605.76 147.915 0.1477 2017 Sheppard et al. Ananke
31 XXIV Iocaste 5 0.019 20,722,566 -609.43 147.248 0.2874 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
32 N/A S/2003 J 16 2 0.0015 20,743,779 -610.36 150.769 0.3184 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
33 XXVII Praxidike 7 0.043 20,823,948 -613.90 144.205 0.1840 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
34 XXII Harpalyke 4 0.012 21,063,814 -624.54 147.223 0.2440 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
35 XL Mneme 2 0.0015 21,129,786 -627.48 149.732 0.3169 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
36 XXX Hermippe 4 0.0090 21,182,086 -629.81 151.242 0.2290 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
37 XXIX Thyone 4 0.0090 21,405,570 -639.80 147.276 0.2525 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
38 LXX S/2017 J 9 2 00151 21,429,955 -640.90 152.661 0.2288 2017 Sheppard et al. Ananke
39 XII Ananke 28 3.0 21,454,952 -640.38 151.564 0.3445 1951 Nicholson Ananke
40 L Herse 2 0.0015 22,134,306 -672.75 162.490 0.2379 2003 Gladman et al. Carme
41 XXXI Aitne 3 0.0045 22,285,161 -679.64 165.562 0.3927 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
42 XXXI S/2017 J 6 2 0.0015 22,394,682 -684.66 155.185 0.5569 2017 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae (fringe member)
43 N/A S/2011 J 1 2 0.0015 20,155,290 -582.22 162.8 0.2963 2011 Sheppard et al. Unknown
44 XXXVII Kale 2 0.0015 22,409,207 -685.32 165.378 0.2011 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
45 XX Taygete 5 0.016 22,438,648 -686.67 164.890 0.3678 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
46 N/A S/2003 J 19 2 0.0015 22,709,061 -699.12 164.727 0.1961 2003 Gladman et al. Carme
47 XXI Chaldene 4 0.0075 22,713,444 -699.33 167.070 0.2916 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
48 LVII S/2003 J 15 2 0.0015 22,720,999 -699.68 141.812 0.0932 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
49 N/A S/2003 J 10 2 0.0015 22,730,813 -700.13 163.813 0.3438 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
50 N/A S/2003 J 23 2 0.0015 22,739,654 -700.54 148.849 0.3930 2004 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
51 XXV Erinome 3 0.0045 22,986,266 -711.96 163.737 0.2552 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
52 XLI Aoede 4 0.0090 23,044,175 -714.66 160.482 0.4311 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
53 XLIV Kallichore 2 0.0015 23,111,823 -717.81 164.605 0.2041 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
54 LXVI S/2017 J 5 2 0.0015 23,169,389 -720.49 164.331 0.2842 2017 Sheppard et al. Carme
55 LXIX S/2017 J 8 1 0.0015 23,174,446 -720.73 164.782 0.3118 20171 Sheppard et al. Carme
56 XXIII Kalyke 5 0.019 23,180,773 -721.02 165.505 0.2139 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
57 XI Carme 46 13 23,197,992 -763.95 165.047 0.2342 1938 Nicholson Carme
58 XVII Callirrhoe 9 0.087 23,214,986 -727.11 139.849 0.2582 2000 Spahr, Scotti Pasiphae
59 XXXII Eurydome 3 0.0045 23,230,858 -723.36 149.324 0.3769 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
60 LXIII S/2017 J 2 2 0.0015 23,240,957 -723.83 166.398 0.2360 2017 Sheppard et al. Carme
61 XXXVIII Pasithee 2 0.0015 23,307,318 -726.93 165.759 0.3288 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
62 LI S/2010 J 1 2 Unknown 23,314,335 -722.83 163.2 0.320 2010 Jacobson et al. Carme
63 XLIX Kore 2 0.0015 23,345,093 -776.02 137.371 0.1951 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
64 XLVII Cyllene 2 0.0015 23,396,269 -731.10 140.148 0.4115 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
65 LVI S/2011 J 2 1 Unknown 23,400,981 -731.32 148.77 0.3321 2011 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
66 XLVI Eukelade 4 0.0090 23,483,694 -735.20 163.996 0.2828 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
67 LIX S/2017 J 1 2 0.0015 23,483,978 -734.15 149.197 0.3969 2017 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
68 N/A S/2003 J 4 2 0.0015 23,570,790 -739.29 147.175 0.3003 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
69 VIII Pasiphae 60 30 23,609,042 -739.80 141.803 0.3743 1908 Melotte Pasiphae
70 XXXIX Hegemone 3 0.0045 23,702,511 -745.50 152.506 0.4077 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
71 XLIII Arche 3 0.0045 23,717,051 -746.19 164.587 0.1492 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
72 XXVI Isonoe 4 0.0075 23,800,647 -750.13 165.127 0.1775 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
73 N/A S/2003 J 9 1 0.000 15 23,857,808 -752.84 164.980 0.2761 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
74 LVII S/2003 J 9 4 0.0090 23,973,926 -758.34 165.549 0.3070 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
65 IX Sinope 75 7.5 24,057,865 -739.33 153.778 0.2750 1914 Nicholson Pasiphae
76 XXXVI Sponde 2 0.0015 24,252,627 -771.60 154.372 0.4431 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
77 XXVIII Autonoe 4 0.0090 24,264,445 -772.17 151.058 0.3690 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
78 XIX Megaclite 5 0.021 24,687,239 -792.44 150.398 0.3077 2001 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
79 N/A S/2003 J 2 2 0.0015 28,570,140 -981.55 153.521 0.4074 2003 Sheppard et al. Unknown