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Callisto

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Callisto
Callisto
View of the heavily-crated terrain of Callisto.
Discovery
Discovered by Galileo Galilei
Discovery date 1610
Designation
Other names Jupiter IV
Pronounced kual'istoe
Orbital Characteristics
Periapsis 1,869,000 km
Apoapsis 1,897,000 km
Semimajor axis 1,882,700 km
Orbital Period 16.689 018 4 d
Average orbital speed 8.204 km/s (18,351 mph, 29,533 kph)
Eccentricity 0.007 4
Satellite of Jupiter
Physical Characteristics
Volume 5.9 × 1010 km3 (0.0541 Earths)
Mass 1.075 938 ± 0.000 137 × 1023 kg (0.018 Earths)
Axial tilt 0
Mean density 1.83 g/cm3
Mean radius 2410.3 ± 1.5 km (0.378 Earths)[
Rotation period synchronous
Albedo 0.22 (geometric)
Surface temperature (min) 80 ± 5 (-315 °F, -193 °C)
Surface temperature (avg) 134 ± 11 (-218 °F, -139 °C)
Surface temperature (mean) 134 ± 11 (-218 °F, -139 °C)
Surface temperature (max) 165 ± 5 (-162 °F, -108 °C)
Apparent magnitude 5.65 (opposition)

Callisto, also known as 'Jupiter IV', is a natural satellite of Jupiter. It was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. It is the third-largest moon in the Solar System. It is the second largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede. Callisto has about 99% the diameter of the planet Mercury but only about a third of its mass. It is the fourth Galilean moon of Jupiter by distance, with an orbital radius of about 1,880,000 km.

Callisto's rotation is tidally locked to its revolution around Jupiter, so that the same hemisphere always faces inward; Jupiter appears to stand still in Callisto's sky. Callisto is less affected by Jupiter's magnetosphere than the other inner satellites because it orbits farther away.

The surface of Callisto is heavily cratered and extremely old. It does not show any signatures of subsurface processes such as plate tectonics or volcanism, and is thought to have evolved predominantly under the influence of impacts.

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